Indonesia lies between the Pacific Ring of Firealong the north-eastern islands adjacent to and including New Guinea and the Alpide beltalong the south and west from Sumatra, Java, Bali, Flores, and Timor. The volcanoes in Indonesiaare among the most active of the Pacific Ring of Fire. They are formed due to subduction zonesbetween the Eurasian Plateand the Indo-Australian Plate. Some of the volcanoes are notable for their eruptions, for instance, Krakataufor its global effects in 1883, Lake Toba for its supervolcaniceruption estimated to have occurred 74,000 BPwhich was responsible for six years of volcanic winter, and Mount Tamborafor the most violent eruption in recorded history in 1815. The most active volcanoes are Kelutand Merapion Javaisland which have been responsible for thousands of deaths in the region. Since AD 1000, Kelut has erupted more than 30 times, of which the largest eruption was at scale 5 on the Volcanic Explosivity Index, while Merapi has erupted more than 80 times. The International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth’s Interior has named Merapi as a Decade Volcanosince 1995because of its high volcanic activity. This position cause this series have many earthquakes and tsunami events.
Significant Tsunami Events in Indonesia
|No.||Year||Location||Magnitude||No. of victim|
|2.||1833||Sumbar, Bengkulu, Lampung||8,8||Not recorded|
|3.||1938||Kep. Kai – Banda||8,5||Not recorded|
|9.||1996||Toli – toli||7||9|
|12.||2004||Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam||9||˃ 250.000|